Research that makes all the difference

What have we been up to?

Research and knowledge are at the core of NOVAFRICA´s mission. Our projects in economic and business management are not only for academic publication purposes but have a strong practical emphasis, that contribute to effective managers training and public policies design.

The center also promotes local capacity building activities such as internships and training initiatives, and offer consulting services in its areas of expertise.

Check out our Projects below.

Projects

Principal Investigators
Tijan L Bah (Nova SBE)
Cátia Batista (Nova SBE)
Flore Gubert (IRD Paris)
David McKenzie (World Bank)

Project Coordinator
Tijan L Bah (Nova SBE)

Funding
Funded by the European Union

Institutional support
Ministry of Youth and Sports – The Gambia

About this Project
Irregular migration to Europe through the sea,though risky, remains one of the most popular migration options for many Sub-Saharan Africans. Policymakers have scaled up their efforts to deter potential migrants from embarking on this dangerous route. But the impact of these efforts has mostly not been rigorously evaluated. These efforts must address the relevant factors in the decision-making process of the potential migrants. Do the latter actually know how risky their intended voyage is? Do they have realistic expectations regarding their chances of being granted asylum after their arrival? If not, are their migration intentions and decisions affected by more accurate information? What other policies can be put in place to save lives in this process? Our project conducts a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of different policies to reduce irregular migration to Europe. We work with 8000 potential migrants from rural areas in the Gambia, the country in West Africa with the highest incidence of irregular migration to Europe.

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista (Nova SBE)
David Mckenzie (World Bank)

Project Coordination
Rui Mascarenhas

Funding
World Bank

About this Project
We use incentivized laboratory experiments to investigate how potential migrants make decisions between working in different destinations in order to test the predictions of different classic theories of migration. We test theories of income maximization, migrant skill-selection, and multi-destination choice and how the predictions and behavior under these theories vary as we vary migration costs, liquidity constraints, risk, social benefits, and incomplete information. We show how the basic income maximization model of migration with selection on observed and unobserved skills leads to a much higher migration rate and more negative skill-selection than is obtained when migration decisions take place under more realistic assumptions. Second, we find evidence of a home bias, where simply labelling a destination as “home” causes more people to choose that location. Thirdly, we investigate whether the independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA) assumption holds. We find it holds for most people when decisions just involve wages, costs, and liquidity constraints. However, once we add a risk of unemployment and incomplete information, IIA no longer holds for about 20 percent of our sample. 

Principal Investigators
Tijan L Bah (Nova SBE)
Cátia Batista (Nova SBE)

Funding
NOVAFRICA | Nova SBE

About this Project
Illegal migration to Europe through the sea, though risky, remains one of the most popular migration options for many Sub-Saharan Africans. This study aims at improving our understanding of the determinants of the willingness to migrate illegally from West Africa to Europe. We implemented an incentivized lab-in-the field experiment in rural Gambia with a sample of male youths aged 15 to 25 years old. According to our data, potential migrants overestimate both the risk of dying en route to Europe, and the probability of obtaining legal residency status. The preliminary results from our study indicate that the migration decisions of potential migrants are likely to actively respond to relevant information. 

Preliminary results from this project can be found in the working paper.

Principal Investigators
Pedro Vicente (Nova SBE)
Teresa Molina (Nova SBE)
Joana Cardim (Nova SBE)

Field Coordinator
Carine Canonici Costa Xaver Schenker

Management Institution
ProFuturo

About this project
Primary school coverage has been increasing in many developing countries. Angola is no exception. However, learning indicators such as literacy and numeracy rates are not as optimistic. Many programs have been trying to improve education quality in developing countries, some using technology as part of new pedagogical methods. Computer hardware combined with adaptive-learning software can potentially have a strong positive impact on student achievement. ProFuturo is one of these programs. Through its own pedagogical vision, it goes well beyond the provision of technologic hardware, as it offers an innovative and personalized approach to teaching and learning.
This study aims to evaluate the impact of the ProFuturo – Aula Digital program in the specific context of the capital city of Angola, Luanda, through a randomized controlled trial.  The core purpose of the evaluation is to measure the impact of the program Aula Digital, revealing its main strengths, and which improvements can be made. In order to reach a comprehensive analysis, we propose to measure not only outcomes that illustrate students’ cognitive abilities, such as the ones employing standardized written tests, but also mediating outcomes, namely those related to teacher and student motivation and absenteeism rates, parents’ expectations and satisfaction, and students’ non- cognitive skills such as confidence, cooperation and self-knowledge.

Principal Investigators
Miguel Lebre de Freitas (Nova SBE)
Miguel Lino Ferreira (Nova SBE)

Project Coordinator
Miguel Lino Ferreira

Funding
Banco Millenium Atlântico

About this project
The partnership between Banco Millennium Atlântico (BMA) and NOVAFRICA has been transforming AGE – Atlântico Global Economics into a top-tier research center in southern Africa with a strong technical and analytical capacity. The AGE team produces quarterly reports about the Angolan economy, plus a series of short texts about specific issues.
The objective is to make BMA the leader in the production of knowledge about the evolution, prospects and opportunities of the Angolan economy in an international context. All AGE output is the result of close and ongoing collaboration between the NOVAFRICA members based in Lisbon, and their BMA colleagues based in Luanda, thus creating a single team.
While NOVAFRICA ensures the scientific and executive coordination of the project given the expertise of its members in the production of international macroeconomics analyses, BMA uses its capacity to bring local information together with access to institutional data sources.

Project Coordinator
Miguel Lino Ferreira

Partner
Global Business School Network Funder Johnson & Johnson

Funder
Johnson & Johnson

MDI Program Info
The Management Development Institute (MDI) for Health Care Organizations is a one-week intensive program designed to enhance the leadership and management skills of program managers and leaders of sub-Saharan organizations, governmental and non-governmental, that are devoted to delivering health care services to underserved populations. The MDI is managed by the Global Business School Network and financed by Johnson & Johnson.

The MDI was launched in Portuguese in Maputo in 2017 and is managed by NOVAFRICA. This program for Portuguese-speaking countries happens in Maputo, Mozambique.

For further information please follow the link (pt only).

How to apply
MDI is seeking teams or groups not exceeding 3 individuals from organizations who have related leadership responsibilities for implementing specific national healthcare programs and priorities in their country or region.Depending on the country and sector, candidates might have the following titles: Director, Executive Director, Project Manager, Program Manager, Program Coordinator, Public Health Coordinator, Regional Coordinator, Chief Medical Officer, Chief Nurse, Medical Superintendent, Country Coordinator, Head of Finance/ Administration.

Thirty-six participants are selected for each edition.

Please see the form to apply and further information here (pt only).

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista (Nova SBE)
Julia Seither (Nova SBE)

Funding
IGC – International Growth Center

About this Project
Increasing the productivity of entrepreneurship and transforming micro-enterprises into SMEs in Mozambique is one of the major challenges facing local policy makers, international institutions, and NGOs.

The aim of this research project is to provide experimental evidence on the mechanisms and possible solutions to support exactly this objective. For this purpose, a randomized control trial pilot study will be implemented among small-scale entrepreneurs in the outskirts of Maputo. Specifically, we will provide experimental evidence to answer the following key questions:

  • Can entrepreneurship training positively affect productive microenterprises in low-income countries?
  • Can the aspirations of entrepreneurs, i.e. the goals they set themselves, be changed in a positive way that leads microenterprises towards efficiency?
  • Can synergetic productivity gains be obtained by combining entrepreneurship training with setting positive aspirations of micro-entrepreneurs?

Principal Investigators
Pedro Vicente (Nova SBE)
Rute Martins Caeiro (Nova SBE)

Field Coordination
Rute Martins Caeiro

Funding
União Europeia e Camões – Instituto da Cooperação e da Língua

Managing Institutions
NOVAFRICA VIDA

About this project
A collaborative effort with Voluntariado Internacional para o Desenvolvimento Africano (VIDA)

The large majority of Guinea-Bissau population lives in rural areas and is highly dependent on subsistence agriculture. This research project evaluates the impact of an agricultural intervention program for farmers implemented by the partner organization VIDA, in northwest region of Guinea-Bissau.

The intervention, fosters cooperation between farmers, provides agricultural technical training and inputs, and promotes linkages to local markets. We therefore conduct a randomized field experiment to evaluate the impact of this intervention on the levels of social cohesion between farmers, the adoption of agricultural technology, production patterns and living standards. Moreover, we also examine the role of social networks in the agriculture adoption process.

Principal Investigators
Alex Armand (Universidad de Navarra)
Antonio Cruz (Universidade Eduardo Mondlane)
Pedro Vicente (Nova SBE)

Collaboration
Alex Coutts (Nova SBE)

Project Coordination
Inês Vilela

Funding
3ie – Transparency and Accountability Initiative

Partnerships
@Verdade Newspaper

About this project
Mozambique discovered substantial natural resources in recent years. Known gas reserves in the Rovuma basin have the potential to transform Mozambique into a global player in Liquefied Natural Gas exports. Being a recent democracy, and with relatively weak institutions, Mozambique also faces considerable risks of resource and revenue mismanagement in the future, particularly since media independence and penetration are low, and the level of political accountability is not improving.

This research project will evaluate the distribution of information about the management of the newly discovered natural gas in the Rovuma basin, and the holding of citizen meetings to deliberate on the main priorities for spending the revenues from these resources. Through the widespread provision of information about the management of natural resources in the country the resource curse can possibly be counteracted.

On the 6th of March, NOVAFRICA (Mozambique) in partnership with Eduardo Mondlane University (Mozambique), and the University of Navarra (Spain) organized a workshop on Transparency and Accountability Initiatives on the Extractives Industry in Mozambique as a prospective initiative for the design of this research project. You can find more information about this workshop here.

Principal Investigators
Pedro Vicente (Nova SBE)
Teresa Molina (Nova SBE)
Mattia Fracchia (Nova SBE)

Field Coordination
Melisa Rodrigues

Managing Institutions
ONG VIDA

About this project
The health sector in Guinea-Bissau faces a severe shortage of health workers and lack of access to health facilities. Therefore, the Guinean government and its national and international partners defined a national strategy to reduce maternal, infant and juvenile mortality and to increase access to basic health provisions, in which community health initiatives play a crucial role. In this context, the NGO VIDA together with the Ministry of Health created and organized a system of Community Health Agents (CHA) in the Autonomous Sector of Bissau.

CHA programs are becoming increasingly popular in sub-Saharan Africa. In recent years, community health workers have become an essential part of national and international health strategies on the delivery of health care in the region. At the same time, there is a concern that the low motivation of CHAs may threaten the potential benefits of investing in CHA programs.

This study wants to investigate to what extent a model in which non-financial incentives are offered on top of basic monetary benefits can result in a sustainable and effective system to incentivize CHAs in developing countries. First, we study incentives activating intrinsic motivation of the agents, related to the pro-social characteristics of the CHA role and non-monetary rewards targeting the extrinsic motivation of the agents, such as social recognition in the community. Second, this study wants also to test whether the dissemination of information on CHAs’ work in targeted communities could improve the effectiveness of the program. Finally, we will also devote attention to the possible complementarity between the different non-financial incentive schemes, as well as to the complementarity between incentive schemes and more informed beneficiaries.

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista (Nova SBE)
Pedro Vicente (Nova SBE)

Project Coordination
Stefanus Leeffers
Julia Seither
Ines Vilela

Funding
GLM – LIC
Growth and Labour Markets in Low Income Countries Programme

About this project
A collaborative effort with Carteira Móvel and the Central Bank of Mozambique

The introduction of mobile money technology in Mozambique has created a sense of opportunity and interest in the Mozambican society, with the Government and the Central Bank of Mozambique paying close attention to its potential impact. While the success of mobile money experiences in other contexts generates great expectations, there is a lack of causal evidence to provide guidance on the consequences of introducing this new technology, particularly in rural areas without access to traditional banks.

This research project focus on the potential impact of mobile money on migrant remittances to rural households in the three southern provinces of Mozambique. It takes advantage of the fact that this technology was still to be introduced in rural Mozambique at the start of the project, and that our partner institution, Carteira Móvel, agreed that we randomly select the rural areas where this technology was and was not be offered for the duration of the project.

The experimental research design allows measuring the impact of introducing mobile payment technology in rural areas on the magnitude and frequency of urban-rural transfers, while also examining substitution patterns in the use of different remittance channels and the motives potentially explaining this substitution – namely reduced transaction costs and increased trust in the remittance channel.

Please find more information on the introduction of mobile money in rural Mozambique here and in this video. Preliminary results on the impact of mobile banking can be found in the working paper, the policy brief and the data set.

In July 2015, the Central Bank of Mozambique, the International Growth Center and NOVAFRICA jointly organized a conference on the innovations and challenges faced in promoting financial development in Mozambique. The event offered international researchers and local policy-makers the opportunity to discuss current initiatives and research projects that evaluate the impact of mobile money in rural areas and micro-enterprise development in the greater Maputo area. Please find more information on the speakers and program of the conference here.

Principal Investigators
Cláudia Custódio (Nova SBE)
Daniel Metzger (Stockholm School of Economics)

Field Coordination
Diogo Mendes

Research Assistance
Mattia Fracchia

Funding
International Growth Center (IGC)

Partnerships
Stockholm School of Economics

About this project
This research project seeks to attain a better understanding of the views and actions of senior managers on financial policies.

This study conducts personal interviews with executives of the largest companies in Mozambique and develops an in-depth analysis of the financial context in Mozambique. This work is aimed at shedding new light on the business environment in Mozambique, and providing precious insights for the design of effective policies that favor the sustainable economic growth of the country.

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista (Nova SBE)
Gharad Bryan (LSE)
Dean Karlan (Yale University)

Field Coordination
Timoteo Simone

Funding
Islamic Development Bank (IDB) and International Growth Center (IGC)

Partnerships
Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA) and Centro de Investigação e Transferência de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento Comunitário (CITT)

About this project
A collaborative effort with the Sustainable Villages Project and the Ministry for Science and Technology of Mozambique

The use of improved agricultural technologies (such as fertilizers or improved seeds) is very limited in Mozambique. We conduct a randomized field experiment to evaluate the impact of smallholder farmers’ own experimentation with new agricultural technologies on adoption of these same technologies.

The project takes place in the district of Molumbo, Zambezia, to analyze the effect of teaching farmers how to experiment with new agricultural technologies on their farms on the adoption of these agricultural technologies. The intervention is combined with different degrees of technical extension assistance and of village dissemination of the results of the main intervention.

This Impact Evaluation study is conducted within the Islamic Solidarity Fund for Development (ISDF) Sustainable Villages Project (SVP) in Mozambique.

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista (Nova SBE)
Sandra Sequeira (LSE)
Pedro Vicente (Nova SBE)

Field Coordination
Matilde Grácio
Rute Martins Caeiro

Partners
Carteira Móvel
Central Bank of Mozambique

Funding
International Growth Center (IGC)
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

About this project
A collaborative effort with Carteira Móvel and the Central Bank of Mozambique.

The goal of this project is to learn how mobile money can best increase the savings capacity of microenterprises, and to investigate how business skills affect the optimal management of savings for business development in Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, this study will be the first to test for the relative importance, complementarity and sustainability of low-cost interventions that leverage accessible technology to promote the development of microenterprises.

Using a 2×2 randomized control trial methodology, we will evaluate (1) the role of cell-phone technology (mobile money) in facilitating savings; (2) the impact of a financial training program aimed at assisting microenterprises to efficiently manage micro-savings and work towards achieving long-term self-declared business goals.

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista (Nova SBE)
Marcel Fafchamps (Stanford)
Pedro Vicente (Nova SBE)

Field Coordination
Stefanus Leeffers

Funding
International Growth Center (IGC)

About this project
A collaborative effort with Carteira Movel

Recent research in Mozambique has shown considerable adoption of mobile money in rural areas of Southern Mozambique. However, it remains to be understood how information and adoption diffuse within mobile money users in rural areas.

This research project examines how social influence and peers affect the adoption of mobile money services. For this purpose, we (exogenously) build social links between about 1,000 mobile money users that have been part of a randomized control trial implemented by NOVAFRICA for the last two years (see here for more information about this project). We will randomly assign social links to participants and, by varying the structure of the social network, be able to assess the role of network density, clustering and centrality in the diffusion of information and adoption. Within the networks, chosen individuals will be provided with further information to allow us to measure how this information affects mobile money usage.

Principal Investigators
Vincenzo Di Maro (World Bank)
Pedro Vicente (Nova SBE)
Danila Serra (Southern Methodist University)
Stefan Leeffers (Nova SBE)

Field Coordination
Frederica Mendonça
Ornella Dellaccio
Bruno Spellanzon
Miguel Lino Ferreira
Timothy Brennan

Partners
FAS, World Bank

Funding
World Bank

About this project
A collaborative effort with FAS and the World Bank

The Fundo de Apoio Social (FAS) provides support to local decision-making institutions while financing local infrastructures (schools, health centers).

In collaboration with the Development Impact Evaluation Initiative of the World Bank, we are designing and implementing an impact evaluation project of the capacity building component of the current phase of FAS. This will span across four provinces of Angola (Bengo, Bie, Kwanza-Sul, and Namibe), and will include thorough measurements through primary data collection and household surveys.

We will be able to advise the government of Angola in very specific terms regarding local development policy options, not only for the future activities of FAS, but also for other local development government and non-governments agencies.

Principal Investigators
Macartan Humphreys
Pedro Vicente

Field Coordination
Tiago Almeida

Funding
USAID

About this project
This impact evaluation explores two initiatives to increase voter turnout and political participation in Mozambique, a country with low participation rates. One of the possible explanations for low turnout and limited participation is insufficient information about political and public issues. In particular, there is a dearth of newspapers, and newspaper readership is extremely low in Mozambique. As such, this impact evaluation asks if distribution of a free newspaper with information about upcoming elections can increase voter turnout.

In addition, given the commonality and effectiveness of voter turnout drives in many countries, Mozambican turnout and other political participation could also be increased through more concerted mobilization efforts. Increased access to information and communication technology offers a low cost and previously unavailable mechanism to promote such participation. As a result, this evaluation asks if SMS campaigns can increase political participation, and, if they can, what type of SMS campaign is most effective.

See more about this research project in this video.

Principal Investigators
Pedro Vicente (Nova SBE)
Esselina Macome (Central Bank of Mozambique)

Project Management
Aurora Bila
Rafael Francisco

Field Coordination
Margarida Ortigão

Managing Institutions
NOVAFRICA
Banco de Moçambique

Funding
International Growth Center

About this project
A collaborative effort with Banco de Moçambique

This study is the first part of a project concerning Electronic Payments in Mozambique with the purpose of diagnosing the access to banking and electronic payments (POS, Mobile Banking and Mobile Money) by small businesses in the cities of Mozambique.

For this purpose, 1.000 small firms were selected in the cities of Maputo and Matola to answer a baseline survey with the goal of analysing which businesses use these services and what factors, regarding the business and the owner, are more likely to influence their usage.

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista
Pedro Vicente
Dean Yang

Project Management
Luke Crowley

Field Coordination
Matilde Grácio
Guilherme Rodrigues

Managing Institution
Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA)

Funding
Agricultural Technology Adoption Initiative (ATAI)
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

Partnership
Carteira Móvel

About this project
A collaborative effort with Carteira Móvel

This study aims to promote the proper use and integration of the use of fertilizers in agricultural practices in Mozambique, specifically of the farmers in dryland. The goal is to be able to improve production levels of these farmers through the introduction of mobile money technology – mKesh, a service that allows the use of cellphones to make cash transactions such as deposits, withdrawals or transfers. This project took place in the province of Manica, and included 600 farmers. Each group had access to different features of mKesh, in order to evaluate which of the strands had a better impact on the level of savings and on farmer’s agricultural practices.

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista
Daniel Silverman
Dean Yang

Field Coordination
Cheney Wells

Partnership
Banco Oportunidade de Moçambique (BOM)

Managing Institution
Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA)

Funding
Agricultural Technology Adoption Initiative (ATAI)
International Growth Center (IGC)

About this project
A collaborative effort with Banco Oportunidade de Moçambique

Transfers between families are extremely common and substantial in developing countries such as Mozambique. Why do people give? What are the main barriers to giving and how can they be overcome?

Basic answers to these questions are provided by running a lab-in-the-field experiment. Study participants in urban Mozambique play dictator games where their counterpart is the closest person to them outside their household.

In these games, individuals share more with counterparts when they have the option of giving in kind (in the form of goods), compared to giving that must be in cash. Results suggest that this effect is driven by a desire to control how recipients use gifted resources. Standard economic determinants such as the rate of return to giving and the size of the endowment also affect giving, but the effects are significantly smaller than the effect of the in-kind option.

Please see here the working paper and here the published article in the Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization.

Principal Investigators
Pedro C. Vicente
Rute Martins Caeiro

Field Coordination
Rute Martins Caeiro

Funding
Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian

Managing Institutions
NOVAFRICA
VIDA

About this project
A collaborative effort with Voluntariado Internacional para o Desenvolvimento Africano (VIDA)

Vitamin A deficiency is still a widespread public problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In collaboration with the Portuguese NGO VIDA we analyze the impact of a food-based intervention to fight vitamin A deficiency using orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP).

More specifically, we conducted a randomized evaluation of OFSP-related training to female farmers in southern Mozambique, in which they were taught basic concepts of nutrition, how to plant OFSP, and how to introduce OFSP in household meals. We intend to assess the extent of OFSP-adoption and its effects on key nutrition indicators.

For additional information about the NGO VIDA see here.

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista
Pedro Vicente

Field Coordination
Inês Vilela
Stefan Leefers
Julia Seither

Partners
Carteira Móvel

Funding
International Growth Center
Portuguese National Science Foundation

About this project
A collaborative effort with Carteira Movel and the Central Bank of Mozambique

Carteira Movel, controlled by the main mobile phone operator in Mozambique, launched the first mobile money service in the country (branded mKesh). NOVAFRICA collaborated with Carteira Movel and the Central Bank of Mozambique to provide an in-depth study of several channels of impact of mobile money operations.

In particular, we analyze the impact of bringing mobile money services to rural communities. Outcome variables of interest are savings and remote transfers, as well as consumption and investment patterns of individual users.

We use randomized impact evaluation methods and tailored user surveys to assess the effects of the introduction of mobile money services. Our study spans across several provinces of the country (Gaza, Inhambane and Maputo).

This project will strengthen the existing knowledge about financial innovations using information and communication technologies that are directed at rural locations in developing countries.

See more about the Introduction of Mobile Money in Mozambique research project at video | working paper | policy brief.

In July 2015, the Central Bank of Mozambique, the International Growth Center and NOVAFRICA jointly organized a conference on the innovations and challenges faced in promoting financial development in Mozambique. The event offered international researchers and local policy-makers the opportunity to discuss current initiatives and research projects that evaluate the impact of mobile money in rural areas and micro-enterprise development in the greater Maputo area. Please find more information on the speakers and program of the conference here.

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista
Dean Yang

Field Coordination
Cheney Wells

Managing Institution
Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA)

Partners
Banco Oportunidade de Moçambique (BOM)
International Fertilizer Development Corporation (IFDC)

Funding
Agricultural Technology Adoption Initiative (ATAI)
International Growth Center (IGC)

About this project
A collaborative effort with BOM and the IFDC

A large fraction of the Mozambican population lives in rural areas and is in great need of innovations to improve financing for agricultural inputs. At the same time, many thousands of migrants send substantial remittances to their families in rural parts of Mozambique. This project offered migrants in Maputo City the ability to pay directly for agricultural modernization inputs for their families in rural areas.

There are two key project partners in Mozambique. First, Banco Oportunidade de Mozambique (BOM) to facilitate internal remittances and design innovative savings and loan products for internal migrants intended to finance agricultural input packages. Second, the International Fertilizer Development Corporation (IFDC) to manage delivery of agricultural inputs and training to recipient rural households.

The project has potentially a significant impact on policy design insofar as findings from the study can help identify innovative policies to mobilize internal migrant resources for agricultural input finance.

Principal Investigators
Joana S. P. Story
Nuno Guimarães-Costa
Miguel Pina e Cunha

About this project
There is great need to understand leadership and management in Africa. After we learn more about African leaders and managers, we can then translate that knowledge to the larger leadership and management literatures. In this way we can create a more indigenous theory that can also be applied and validated in the western world.

Scholarship on leadership and management in Sub-Saharan Africa is scarce and fragmented. We organized the existing literature around three different research streams: functional (how to do business in Africa from a Western perspective), cultural (what makes African leadership/management different), and critical (how to eliminate colonial thinking). We discussed each of these three different perspectives by illustrating the key ideas, the key theories, the methods, and the main focus of articles. Based on this discussion and illustration, we developed a model that describes the “evolution” of how leadership and management have been depicted in Africa and analyzed opportunities for future research.

Principal Investigator
Pedro Vicente

Managing Institution
CSAE – University of Oxford

Partnership
Comissão Nacional de Eleições de São Tomé e Príncipe
ActionAid International Nigeria
Jornal A Verdade (Mozambique)
Observatório Eleitoral (Mozambique)

About this projects
A collaborative effort with CSAE at Oxford University

We have unique expertise on impact evaluation of voter education campaigns in Africa. We have designed and conducted randomized control trials during electoral campaigns in Sao Tome and Principe (presidential elections of 2006), Nigeria (full round of national and state level elections of 2007), and Mozambique (parliamentary/presidential elections of 2009).

In Sao Tome and Principe we have worked with the Comissão Eleitoral de Eleições. The campaigned focused on counteracting vote-buying, known in the country as ‘banho’. The research has found that vote-buying increases voter turnout and that challengers may be particularly reliant on this electoral strategy. view more

In Nigeria we have partnered with ActionAid International Nigeria (AAIN). AAIN implemented an anti-violence campaign, trying to provide an added sense of security to voters and appealing to participation in the elections. The campaign was conducted nationwide, in six states of Nigeria (Lagos, Oyo, Kaduna, Plateau, Delta, and Rivers). The research has found that electoral violence is analogous to terrorism, as it is aimed to keep voters from voting.

In Mozambique, we have collaborated with free newspaper A Verdade and the consortium of national NGOs Observatório Eleitoral. We tested different forms of voter education. We employed an SMS-based system (using free software ushahidi) which enabled voters to receive and send information about the elections. The research has found that voter education increases turnout; however different forms of voter education have different effects on perceptions of voters. view more

Principal Investigators
Cátia Batista (Nova SBE)
Pedro Vicente (Nova SBE)

Managing Institution
CSAE – University of Oxford

About this project
A collaborative effort with CSAE at Oxford University

From 2006 to 2009, we have conducted extensive fieldwork and household survey data in Cape Verde and Mozambique. These data included detailed modules, namely on household migration histories, education, demand for political accountability or new business formation. With these information, we have produced research on topics such as the brain drain vs. brain gain debate; the impact of emigration on the demand for political accountability; or the impact of migration on new business formation.